Health Disease

Allergies : Symptoms, Treatment/ remedies

Allergies

Allergy is a response of a body against certain substances in the environment. These substances are mostly harmless to many people. We call these substances the allergens. Allergies and actual all the hypersensitive responses of the body against any substance. These reactions can be due to genetic tendency or a person himself may develop allergic diseases by exposing to new substances or changes in immune system all may cause person to develop allergies. The first effect of allergen is on bronchi which tend to constrict, making it difficult to breath.

Symptoms

Symptoms of allergies include itching, watery eyes, sneezing, itchy and running nose, difficulty breathing, rashes, hives, stomach cramps, vomiting, diarrhoea and sometimes headache, muscle ache and generalised weakness.

Allergy

Causes

the main causes of allergy are,
airborne allergens such as pollen, animal dander, dust mites and mold.
Foods (magnesium rich foods) such as tree nuts (walnuts, almonds, hazelnuts, pecans, cashews, pistachios and Brazil nuts), Cow’s milk, eggs, soybeans, peas, chickpeas, peanuts, citrus fruits, seafood (shellfish, prawns, crabs and lobsters) and wheat.
Air borne such as bacteria. Air allergy is rare but person with air allergy have to live in a bubble.
Some people are allergic water itself. This is rare kind of allergy. People with water allergy presents hives and bristles. This rare but very severe kind of allergy.

Pathogenesis

When an allergen enters the body, The immune system of the body initiates the reaction against the re-exposure to allergen by releasing large quantities of inflammatory mediators e.g., histamine serotonin leukotrienes from previously Ig E sensitized mast cells by the process of degranulation.

Treatment/ remedies

There is no cure for allergies but effective management is present in various forms. The management of allergic reaction is to avoid exposure to allergen anti allergic medicines are available to avoid major hypersensitive reactions against allergens. Anti-allergic medicines are of two types one of which is for mild allergies and other (adrenaline auto-injections) is for emergency treatment. The other method of for controlling allergy is to manage the symptoms (symptomatic treatment), for e.g., giving bronchodilators, anti-emetic, antitussive, etc.
Desensitization procedure or immunotherapy is the uncommon method of treating allergies as it can cause immune deficiency in people. Where first the causal agent for the allergy is determined and then the treatment is suggested. Hypnotizing methods under the supervision of healthcare professionals have also proven to decrease allergies. Lastly the allergies can also be treated by gene therapy.

Allergy

Procedure of desensitization

It is the process in which the immune system is weakened by medication to lessen body’s response (depress immune system) against allergen. In short it makes the body used to the allergen. Slowly and steadily the doctor administers the allergen to body for longer period, each time the administered dose of allergen is increased, builds up tolerance. This process enables the body immune system to build tolerance against allergen slowly. As a result, the allergy tapes off with time and person is no more allergic to allergen. But the biggest drawback of this process is that the person become more prone to infection during this period of therapy as the body’s immune system is made compromised.

Tests

How to know if a person has allergy to any substance before the appearance of symptoms? Well running blood and skin tests are the easiest way of knowing if person have allergy against the substances.

  • Skin test includes simply scratch test in which the forearm is pricked and is exposed to allergen. This test can be done with 50 different substances at a time. Prick test or scratch test is quick method to determine the cause of allergy. The allergen may be dust, food, or any substance.
  • Blood test is used to detect large amounts of inflammatory mediator. Allergy blood test are of two types. 1 is for checking the total IgE antibody count in blood. Whereas the other is for counting specific IgE antibody in the blood which causing the allergy.
  • The diet test is the last type of test is for describing which element in diet is causing allergy. Its simply is conducted by avoid certain substances in diet to determine which substance in diet is causing allergy.

Research

allergies have been widespread over period. This is why many studies have been carried out to study allergies and find the appropriate cure for it. Much research are directed to prove the most suitable methods of treatment of all the treatment methods used now a days. Some Studies have successfully described the associated adverse of medicine while others are trying to modify the allergenic proteins of body. epidemiologist have calculated the prevalence of allergies between 10 to 30% globally, whereas the incidence of allergies is increasing day by day with the passage of time. Hygiene hypothesis is the reason behind increasing incidence of allergies in world, which states that the increasing cause of allergy is due to well hygienic conditions, the kids fail to develop immune system or tolerate any allergen. That is why the kids of present age are suffering with allergies more. The most prevalent type of allergy is seasonal allergy, the biggest cause of which is pollen. This type of allergy is expressed as hay fever. Australia is at the top of list when describing the most allergy suffering nation due to high pollen count.

Conclusion

Allergies have become common in present age. In Present generation, Kids are more prone to allergies due more maintained, clean and hygienic environmental conditions due to which they can tolerate any ups or downs in the environmental hygiene and express as allergy. The prevalent condition can be put to pause by boasting immune system or curing the allergies, which is still under process. Seasonal allergies should be avoided by avoiding seasonal allergens for e.g., wearing masks. The rare allergies are most severe ones. People with rare allergies have to survive in constrained conditions.

 

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