Health Optimization

Cancer : Stages, Causes, Types and Treatment


uncontrollable and abnormal multiplication of body cells that can spread through the body or can exist as a mass of abnormal cells is called cancer. Its evidence was found in fossilized bone tumours in ancient Egypt. Sometimes these abnormally multiplying cells damages the surrounding tissues. It is considered to be a life threatening, lifelong disease for patients suffering with it. Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in people. Cancers show series of adverse circumstances that general at first and specify as cancer progress. Whereas depression in cancer patient is common due to their life-threatening condition. Some cancers have tendency to grow fast in contrast to few that are slow growing depending on the nature of cancer.


Cancers have many classifications, but the general classification of cancer include,
Benign cancers
Highly localised, differentiated mass of abnormally dividing cells are benign cancers. These cancers appear as localised tumours.
Malignant cancers
Nonlocalized, undifferentiated mass of cells that have high tendency to invade surrounding tissues. these types of cancers are usually dangerous and cannot be treated fully.
And upon these characteristics cancers was graded by NMDA.



There are four stages of cancer depending upon the extent of spread of cancer (malignancy) these stages denote the advancement of cancer,

  • Stage 1

Stage 1 cancers are most localised and well differentiated small mass of abnormally dividing cells. During such stage the cancer has not spread to neighbouring lymph nodes.

  • Stage 2

In second stage cancers, the mass has grown in size but the lymph nodes are still not invaded by tumor.

  • Stage 3

Stage 3 cancers show the malignancy have started in cancers. The cancer has been fully grown and started to spread in neighbouring few lymph nodes only.

  • Stage 4

Stage 4 cancers are the last stage cancers, and a patient Is most probably on the verge of death. Such cancers show highly malignant state. The cancerous mass has been widespread to far lymphatic tissues and other organs of the body. This the point of no return in cancer patient.


When a person is exposed to any continuous disturbing stimulus that have tendency to cause malignancy that can been familial (through genes), through physical changes or hormonal changes leads to mutation in cell growth regulator. This mutation result in abnormal abundant division cycles in cell which either grow in its location (benign) or widespread and invade to other tissues (malignant) is termed as cancers. Malignant tissues are more dangerous and life threatening as they have the tendency to invade the organ that result in decline in the function of affected organs.


Cancers are caused by aggregation of multiple contributing factors. These factors include genes, environmental factors, stress and other constitutional characteristic of patient. There can be multiple causes of cancers such as, physical inactivity, stress, alcohol consumption, smoking, exposure to excessive radiation such as in people who works in nuclear power plant or people surviving nuclear attack (e.g., Hiroshima Nagasaki), specific disease, hormonal disturbances, air pollution, rare causes, etc.


Signs and symptoms

General signs and symptoms of cancers include, excessive sweating, fever, fatigue, unexplained excessive bleeding or discharge from body, unexplained bruising, generalise body pain, abnormal weight loss, difficulty swallowing, appearance of unusual lumps and swellings in body, skin changes (parents of sore and painful mole, changes in bowel and bladder function, chronic coughing (especially in case of lung cancer), difficulty in healing of wounds,


Beside it sign in symptoms cancer have many long-term side effects these side effects can easily be seen in any chronic cancer patient. The complications of cancer include intense depression (thinking about death and worrying about life all the time), fatigue and generalised body ache (the feeling of being tired all the time), Hair loss (excessive loss specially after chemotherapy), Immunodeficiency (such patients are more prone to infections), Anaemia (as the abnormal RBCs mass are unable to synthesize Normal levels of haemoglobin in blood, sore mouth (Painful and foul breath), Loss of appetite (do too well we have seen cancer patients have abnormal body weight) And disturbed general body functions.


As it is said prevention is better than cure, Cancer can also be prevented and people who are at a highest risk for developing cancers. These preventions include,

  • Developing healthy eating habits

eating healthy foods such fruits, meat and vegetables in a balanced way. Avoiding any food such as high cholesterol meal, drinking water right after drinking, etc.

  • Developing habits of physical activity

Regular physical activity can help combat many disease conditions. Not only physical activity makes the patient physically active but also psychologically, socially and biologically well.

  • Avoiding direct exposure sunlight

People should avoid direct exposure of skin to sunlight specially at peak UV index times. Covering all protecting skin while going out in sun. Using sun block what maximum SPF ratio that act as an extra layer between skin and sunlight.

  • Maintain healthy body weight,

obesity or underweight both can lead to multiple health conditions one of which is cancer.

  • getting properly vaccinated on time,

Vaccination is another method of direction various life-threatening diseases that can progress to being malignant later.

  • seek regular medical care advice special,

A normal person should visit a doctor once every six months for a general physical examination So that the detection of disease/ cancer can easily be done on its early stages.

  • Avoid addictions,

Such as drug addiction, Alcoholism, tobacco smoking, vaping all can lead to lung, liver cancers.

  • avoid risky behaviour,

a patient should avoid any risky behaviours that can prove to be dangerous for their physical



Cancer can be treated with various approaches five of which are,

  • surgery

the surgical procedure for the treatment of cancers usually includes resection of benign tumours from the area of its location along with some neighbouring tissues.

  • bone marrow transplant

the process of bone marrow transplant includes 2 separate surgical procedures. First is finding the best suitable match for the transplant then taking the bone marrow out of donors whereas the second surgical procedure include placing the donated bone marrow in a recipient.

  • Chemotherapy

Use of highly potent drugs to stop the growth and spread of cancers.

  • Radiation therapy

During this type of therapy high doses of radiations are bombarded on the tumour that result in either Growth of tumour mass is stop or there is shrinkage in tumour size.

  • Immunotherapy

As already stated, cancer can cause immunodeficiency in patient. Steroids and various drugs are given to cancer patients to build up immune system in patients.

  • Hormone therapy

when saying disturbances in hormonal regulation can cause cancer that means when body hormones are balanced there are less chances of cancers. Please body hormones are kept within normal levels with the help of Outside source.

  • Target therapy

Target therapy is also a type of cancer treatment in which proteins are targeted control cancer growth and spread.


Cancer is life threatening condition, that can appear in any age. Men and women are both equally affected. The most common cancer in men is benign prostate hyperplasia whereas the most common cancer in women is breast cancer. Proper preventive measures should be taken, and early diagnosis and treatment should we adopt it. besides provision of conventional medication, patients should also be given psychotherapy to help them overcome their depression.

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