Health Care

Diabetes And Weight Fluctuations Risk And Types

Introduction

“Hyperglycaemia” or diabetes is a condition, which require lifestyle adjacent, rather than disease. Diabetes is an insulin related disorder which may be familial or idiopathic (unknown reason). Cause may or may not be known but people are aware of its effects on people’s general health. Diabetes is one of the leading causes of renal failure, gangrene, vascular diseases, blindness, heart diseases, nerves, neuropathies and many more. Diabetes mellites is classified into various types depending on their causes. Diabetes can be of following types:
Diabetes mellitus type 1
Diabetes mellitus type 2
Diabetes insipidus
MODY (Maturity Onset Diabetes of Youngs)
Gestational diabetes
Out of which the most common are diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2.

PHYSIOLOGY

Insulin is a hormone secreted by ß-cells of pancreas in islets of Langerhans which is produced in response to elevated blood glucose level. Its function is to regulate glucose levels in peripheries of the body by converting it to glycogen and transporting it from liver to muscles, brain and other cells. In other words, Insulin decreases hepatic (liver) production of glucose hence maintaining blood glucose level. This implies that abnormality at any step of the above-mentioned pathway can result in hyperglycaemia or diabetes.

TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS

It is an autoimmune disease (organ specific), in which the T cells of the body are directed against the cells of islets of Langerhans (ß-cells of pancreas). Resulting from failure in t cell specific tolerance for ß-cell antigen. This whole reaction against own cells damages the insulin producing cells of pancreas that in turn result in absolute deficiency of insulin at all. Hence no beta cells no insulin. This type of diabetes can be diagnosed in younger people of age 20 yr. as it is autoimmune. On the other hand, genetic basis of diabetes type 1 explains the polymorphism in CTLA4, HLA DR3, PTPN22 genes. Whereas environmental factors suggest that an infection can be the cause. Type 1 diabetes accounts for 5 to 10 % of diabetic population only. Sign and symptoms of diabetes include generalised fatigue, weakness, thirst, nocturnal incontinence (at night), frequent urination, sudden weight loss, increased appetite, dry skin, numbness in limbs and changes in eyesight (blurred). The best treatment so far is taking units of insulin preparation subcutaneously, physical activity and cutting down carbohydrates from diet.

DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 2

Most prevalent type of diabetes. It is rather multifactorial, heterogenous and complex type of diabetes. It contributes to 90 to 95% cases of diabetes. It can be caused by inflammation, environmental factors and genetic. Type 2 diabetes is characterised by decreased response of peripheral tissues against insulin and decreased production of insulin that causes increased insulin resistance in peripheral tissue which all together results in hyperglycaemia. Environmental factors such as sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits, in association with obesity, are major factors that contribute to developing type 2 diabetes. ß-cell dysfunction led to reduce insulin production. Type 2 diabetes occurs in later age. Another characteristic of type 2 is INSULIN RESISTANCE, this implies that target tissues has failed to respond to insulin normally. Multiple drugs such as insulin secretagogues, etc are present in market for the management of type 2 diabetes.
Gestational diabetes
Diabetes during pregnancy or pregnancy induced diabetes. Such mothers have increased risk of still birth and congenital abnormal formation of foetus. Such women must maintain their blood glucose level during pregnancy. This condition usually resolves after delivery but remains at the high risk for developing diabetes after 10 years.

DIABETES

WEIGHT CHANGES

People with diabetes often struggles with fluctuations in body weight. Like any other complication of diabetes one of the major complications of diabetes is fluctuation in body weight. Weight loss is the major sign of diabetes, but it is often seen that weight start increases after diagnosis and treatment. The reason is that when the body glucose level is maintained with in normal range, the body enter more of a relaxed state that result in weight gain and result in abnormally high cholesterol levels. The sudden weight increase implies the maintain blood glucose level of a diabetic patient. Such patient should give up sedentary lifestyle and adapt healthy lifestyle which should include healthy balance diet and daily physical activity routine. Weight gain or loss, both depends on parson’s activity but for diabetic patients such fluctuations should be considered seriously. Weight should be maintained according to their BMI. This will help managing diabetes more effectively.

RESEARCH

Due to high prevalence rate, finding a suitable cohort for epidemiological studies is easier. Numerous research studies are carried out all around the globe that aims at curing and discovering more about diabetes. Some researchers are working on finding the cure by regenerating and protecting the ß-cells of pancreas in this way the ß-cells will once again start to produce normal amount of insulin. Wile other are studying different aspects of diabetes to deal with it effectively.

CONCLUSION

Maintenance is the art of managing sicknesses. Fluctuation in weight due to diabetes is common. Weight gain during diabetes is considered good sign that means that insulin is working, and blood glucose level is maintained with in normal range whereas weight loss due to diabetes means insulin is not working in body and stored fat is used for energy production in the body due to which body is losing weight. But too much increase in weight (diabetes) will cause more insulin resistance and thus diabetes. Maintenance of weight, diet, physical activity is the only way of managing diabetes.

Related Articles

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Back to top button