Health Disease

Effects of hypo and hyperthyroidism on General Health


Thyroid hormones (T3, T4 and calcitonin) are secreted under the influence of anterior lobe of pituitary gland by producing TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) which is stimulated by hypothalamus by producing TRH (thyrotropic releasing hormone) in response to cold exposure (stimulus). Thyroid hormones are major body metabolism controlling hormones. They metabolise the food we eat and produce energy required for the normal functioning of body.


Thyroid hormones are of significant value in human life. Any imbalance in secretion lead to numerous life-threatening disorders following are function of thyroid hormones.
Weight fluctuation/ regulation
Core temperature
Energy production
This is the reason thyroid should be tested every 6 months by taking thyroid functioning test from blood samples.


Chronically elevated levels of thyroid hormones lead to a condition called hyperthyroidism. The normal T3 range from 80 to 220 ng/dL While normal T4 level range from 5 to 12 microgram/dL. Person Level higher than the normal values of thyroid hormones said to have hyperthyroidism. The elevated values of thyroid hormones are due to hyperactivity of thyroid gland. This is also regarded as overactive or hyperactive thyroid. Whereas low levels of TSH represents the hypoactivity of pituitary gland. The symptoms associated with hyperthyroidism are neck pain, hand tremors, weight loss, irregular heartbeat, fatigue, mood swings, irregular sleep pattern, weakness, heat intolerance, menstrual cycle changes, etc. Goitre is the major manifestation of hyperthyroidism in which thyroid gland is enlarged which causes swallowing difficulties. The major causes of hyperthyroidism include Graves’ disease, thyroiditis, thyroid tumour and drugs. Do individuals specially females are more effected than males. Hyperthyroidism can occur as familial or autoimmune disease. a condition like this cannot be treated if it is due to Graves’ disease otherwise it can be managed and treated. Partial or thyroidectomy is considered as a treatment option for hyperthyroidism. If hyperthyroidism is due to immune reaction, it is more likely to be silent. For the management of hyperthyroidism, a patient died should have portions of vegetables, fruits, Fish, eggs, beans, pulses, dairy products etc. five times a day. For the hyperthyroidism patient, alcohol and caffeine are highly contraindicated. Life span is normally not affected but Untreated hyperthyroidism can cause further serious complications.


Under production of thyroid hormones odd underactivity of thyroid gland led to a condition called hypothyroidism. Such patients usually have high levels of TSH. Hypothyroid patients usually present with the complaints of Cold intolerance, fatigue weight gain, depression, muscular pain, bradykinesia, Muscular weakness, Constipation, dry skin, slow metabolism. Hypothyroidism is caused by Hashimoto’s disease which is an autoimmune disease. This condition effect Heart and circulatory system the most. Untreated hypothyroidism will lead to bradycardia and decreased elasticity or blood vessels. Older females are more affected. For treatment drugs, such as Levothyroxine (act as thyroid hormone) and edible iodine (iodized salt) should be used for lifetime.



Thyroid ology has been topic of interest for researchers. researchers are Studying the diagnosis of conditions, regarding thyroid gland and its secretions, causes of conditions, their genetic basis, actions and regulation of hormones, Pharmacological interventions and methods of management. The recent studies have shown that Thyroid patients are at the high risk of dementia (memory loss). Further studies are directed towards discovering the causes, consequences, associated symptoms and treatment of thyroid cancer. Such research works are studying metastasis that led to thyroid cancer. Epidemiologist are aimed at discovering the prevalence of thyroid dysfunctions around the globe. Studies have showed the estimated prevalence of thyroid problems to around 11.9%. Underdeveloped countries have high prevalence rate as people remain undiagnosed for longer period of their lifespan.


To conclude the above discussion, Hyperthyroidism and hyperthyroidism both can have similar sign symptoms which make it difficult to differentiate and treat two distinct conditions. A person should consult a physician after the appearance of abovementioned signs and symptoms. Tests such as thyroid functioning tests and TSH level test of blood samples from suspected person should be done to confirm the diagnosis. Hypothyroidism is medically more dangerous and serious condition as it can lead to heart failure. No medication should be started before conducting blood tests as it can result in worsening the condition. Hypo or hyperthyroidism both should be considered seriously and treated accordingly.

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