Health Disease

HIV / AIDS : Symptoms, Causes & Treatment


Acquired immune deficiency syndrome is a disease that Is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) lead to a viral infection that result in deficiency of immune system in patient. This type of infection first came from a type of chimpanzee in central Asia. Due to close relation of chimpanzee with human means anything that can infect monkeys, apps can infect human too which defines the start of AIDs. Aids can be acute (can last for 14 days) or chronic (if left untreated can lead to lifelong illness) leading ultimately to death.


There are 5 stages of AIDs which are explained as follow,

  • Infected stage/ incubation stage

It is the early stage of AIDs. During this stage the rate of multiplication (production of multiple copies) and spread (have high tendency to spread throughout the body) of infection is highest. infected stage is the exposure to infection whereas, Incubation period is the time period between exposure to infection and appearance of first sign and symptom of the disease. The infected stage of AIDs last for about 2 to 4 weeks during which mild symptoms of infection (fever, headache, fatigue, rash, etc).

  • Seroconversion illness

It is the period in which AIDs patients Start feeling different symptoms. this stage Noticeable levels of HIV can be easily detected. This stage occurs several weeks after the first stage. Patients feel fatigue, tired, body aches and fever.

  • Asymptomatic stage

It is generally considered to be the second stage of HIV/AIDS. During this stage, the patient become used to the symptoms and feel no noticeable sign related to AIDS. This stage is also called chronic stage of HIV/AIDS.

  • Symptomatic HIV

During this stage of AIDS, the patient becomes symptomatic and feel all the associated signs and symptoms. Patient in this stage are fatigued And present with body aches, fever, severe immune deficiency and etc.

  • Late-stage HIV

When HIV infections are left untreated, infection spreads And the condition of patient worsens with time. The last stage of HIV ultimatelly lead to Death.



HIV life cycle is completed in seven steps Which are,

  • Binding

first step of each HIV life cycle includes the binding of virus on the recipient cells. The virus first attaches itself On surface of recipient cell. And try to enter or send its nuclear material in the host cell.

  • Fusion

During this stage, viral nuclear material fuse with the nuclear machinery of host.

  • diverse transcription

As the name shows, during this step of viral life cycle, multiple copies of nuclear material of virus Through a process called reverse transcription.

  • Integration

integration means to add something. In this step nuclear material of virus integrates with the nuclear material of host.

  • Replication

once integrated in host’s nuclear material, Virus takes over the host’s nuclear machinery and virus DNA replicate with host’s DNA. After this stage, multiple copies of component of virus become visible in host cells.

  • Assembly

when the multiple copies off while components are synthesised, the components of virus tend to assemble, and multiple copies of complete viruses are formed.

  • Budding

At last host’s cell burst out and multiple viruses are released for further infections.

  • Transmission

Due to very small size and unique characteristics of virus, HIV can be translated from one person to another through body fluids (Semen, saliva, blood, plasma and etc. AIDS is a type of STD (sexually transmitted disease).

Signs and symptoms

Rapid weight loss due to decreased appetite, excessive sweating, extensive fatigue, GIT (gastro intestinal tract) disturbance Thus causing diarrhoea, vomiting and nausea, pneumonia, swollen lymph nodes, recurrent fevers, sores of genitalia, mouth sores and etc.

Complication and side effects

The major side effect of AIDS is sudden weight loss, Chronic weakness, prolonged fever and severe diarrhoea. Other complications include neurological symptoms (such as, confusion, amnesia, depression, and anxiety), coordination problems, high risk of Multiple malignancies (such as Kaposi sarcoma and Burkits lymphoma) And spinal cord problems.

Diagnostic and confirmatory test

AIDS can be Diagnosed through blood tests. In blood tests for HIV we cheque for antibodies against virus antigen. The positive test shows the presence of sntibody.



Treatment of HIV includes the following approaches,

  • Medicines

Anti-retroviral therapies are available in the market for the treatment of HIV. These therapies are the combination of HIV medicines. Anti-retroviral therapies are highly prescribed to patients who have HIV due to its effectivity. This therapy causes the patient to live longer.

  • Palliative care

Palliative care means the lifelong care for patients. This include Helping the patient to live independently and longer period, coping with disabilities and Avoiding exposure to further infections.


Prevention of aids is our joint responsibility. Preventions against AIDS include,
Taking shots of HIV vaccinations regularly in time, avoiding drugs through injections, avoid practising unprotected sexual activities, regularly take blood tests to rule out AIDS, Run different campaign programmes regarding AIDS, spreading awareness about AIDS among people and Special medical camps should be held To help aids patients.


Research about HIV/aids are directed do fine the best cure for the condition. Unfortunately, more reliable keyword has been yet found. Virologists suggest aid should be considered as chronic manageable Condition.


HIV is the major global public health issue at present. Epidemiologist suggests That global epidemic began 1981 and has kill 40.1 million people in 2021. 38.4 million people are infected with HIV at present. Studies have also shown that 76% of HIV infections are due to homosexual relations. Developing countries are more prone to HIV infections then developed countries.


to conclude the above discussion, the professionals say HIV infections can easily be prevented by avoiding the major risk factors of the disease. It effects the immune system of the body hence making the patient more vulnerable to multiple infections. Vaccinations are available for prevention. HIV can easily be transmitted from one person to another thus, proper preventive measures Should be taken to avoid being host to dangerous virus.

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